Strategic planning of charging infrastructure for battery electric vehicles considering interactions with the energy sector

Scheiper, Barbara; Walther, Grit (Thesis advisor); Praktiknjo, Aaron Jonathan (Thesis advisor)

Aachen : RWTH Aachen University (2021, 2022)
Dissertation / PhD Thesis

Dissertation, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen, 2021

Abstract

This dissertation thesis provides a new integrated modeling approach for the strategic planning of charging infrastructure for battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Herein, not only the transportation sector but also the energy sector is considered in order to take advantage from the interaction between both sectors. The thesis is structured into an introductory part, a cumulative part consisting of three articles, and a conclusion. In the introductory part of this thesis, current developments in the transportation and the energy sector are described focusing on the promotion of BEVs and the expansion of renewable energy. Resulting interactions between both sectors are outlined. Against this background, the need of an integrated approach for the strategic planning of charging infrastructure for BEVs that simultaneously considers the transportation and the energy sector is derived. The cumulative part of this thesis consists of three articles. The first article provides an extensive overview and analysis of recent publications on the strategic planning of charging infrastructure for BEVs in private and freight transport. The publications are analyzed regarding scope (methodological contribution or case study), type of data (deterministic or uncertain data), solution methodology (exact or heuristic solution), and objective (e.g., maximal coverage or minimal costs). Additionally, existing research gaps are identified and an outlook on promising further research directions is given. The second article presents an integrated modeling approach for the strategic planning of charging infrastructure for BEVs considering the interaction between the transportation and the energy sector. The modeling approach combines a charging station location model and a power flow model with integrated energy stores. Herein, the energy stores are used to temporarily decouple charging load and renewable energy generation. The objective of the developed approach is to maximize the benefits and simultaneously to minimize the challenges that result from the interaction between the transportation and the energy sector, e.g., a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions and the additional load on the electrical grid. In the third article, the applicability and practical relevance of the integrated modeling approach is highlighted in a case study of Germany. The modeling approach is used to plan a fast charging infrastructure with integrated energy stores along German motorways. Based on the results of the case study, recommendations for the optimal network configuration are derived focusing on the number and locations of the fast charging stations and the capacity of the integrated energy stores. Finally, the conclusion summarizes the main findings of each chapter and outlines the thesis' contribution detailing the methodological contribution as well as managerial insights for practitioners. Furthermore, a discussion of the thesis' limitations and an outlook on further research directions are provided.

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