Performance-Management im Produktionsanlauf
- Performance management during production ramp-up
Renner, Tim; Dyckhoff, Harald (Thesis advisor)
Aachen : Publikationsserver der RWTH Aachen University (2012)
Dissertation / PhD Thesis
Aachen, Techn. Hochsch., Diss., 2012
As a component of the innovation process and as a follow-up to product development, production ramp-up serves to integrate innovation into industrial production. Although the possibilities of measuring performance in monetary terms are limited during the ramp-up period, intangible potential is created, the effects of which only become visible in later phases and projects. Several scientific studies have indicated that production ramp-up is an important predictor of a firm’s success. Moreover, there are several indications from management practice that, on the one hand, show its relevance and on the other hand, attest to the challenges arising from attempts to cope with production ramp-up. To deal with these issues, suitable models need to be developed which enhance the transparency of production ramp-up and allow for an efficient process of purposeful decision making. One possibility to satisfy these needs is to apply the performance management approach. Performance management aims to accomplish that decisions are made under consideration of both pursued objectives and associated (side) effects. Thus, the goal of this work is the conceptual design of a guideline for developing a ramp-up-specific system of performance management. This process is implemented in the five modular parts A to E. Part A represents the state of the art of performance management during production ramp-up. Firstly, based on a meta-analysis, a ramp-up-specific catalogue of requirements is developed. By means of this catalogue, five selected articles are analyzed, which show up weaknesses, particularly with regard to the linkaging of ramp-up objectives with a firm’s objectives, the systematic support of continuing enhancement, the consideration of the strategic relevance, the integration of available expert knowledge, and the adequate guidance and support of decision makers during production ramp-up. In Part B, distinctive attributes of production ramp-up are educed: the initially lacking control over production quality, ongoing experience effects, and the varying intensity of production as an image of ramp-up policy. Subsequently, a research map of production ramp-up is drawn – as from a theoretical perspective. To fill the identified research gap, a lean, recursive-dynamic base model is developed. This model is capable of explaining the production ramp-up curve progression through the identified attributes alone. The result facilitates a deeper understanding of production ramp-up, creating the basis of a theory of production ramp-up, and providing a tool of communication for explanatory contributions. Moreover, these theoretical deliberations show up the gap between the special production theories already in existence, and indicate a potential closing of this gap. Part C looks in detail at performance planning as the initial phase of the performance management process. Based on a collection of ramp-up-specific objectives, a hierarchy of objectives is developed, spearheaded by seven fundamental ramp-up objectives. The results meet the demands in the literature for project-independent systems of objectives and business ratios. Expert interviews reveal that the results match firms’ perceptions. Thus, the created systemization of ramp-up goals is not only of theoretical but also of practical value: It offers decision makers an overview of suitable objectives, enabling them to adjust their current objectives and also to gain a qualitative evaluation of the status and effectiveness of objectives. Part D is dedicated to performance regulation. To this end, the CoRuS (Coordination for Ramp-up Success) survey was conducted, which analyzed with the help of structure equation modeling 184 questionnaires from producing firms. The results show a context-robust, significant impact of the activities knowledge management and controlling on ramp-up performance. However, additional variations of the model prove different sets of activities to be effective, depending on contextual factors. Thus, informational groundwork is established for context-specific selection of activities during ramp-up, and decision makers can check and potentially correct their priorities. Part E comes full circle to the state of the art in part A, with a conceptual framework that transforms the foregoing results into a comprehensive but scalable guideline. No default course of action is given, but rather a simplified decision environment to enable an enhanced level of decision rationality. The concept evaluation is based on the design science research approach, e.g. taking the form of a case study, to demonstrate practicability and usefulness. The main contributions of this work are the development of a tool for comparative classification of ramp-up projects, a compatible objective-planning process, a structured presentation of suitable business ratios related to the hierarchy of objectives, and the provision of concrete advice for context-specific and purposeful activities.